- A study of 24 previous studies suggests that while there are gender differences, they have been over-exaggerated
- Fear that misconception of studies could become real-world stereotypes
- Many research studies have suggested that men are more willing to take risks than women – but one researcher is saying ‘not so fast’.
Julie Nelson, from the University of Massachusetts-Boston, said differences between the genders have been over-exaggerated by previous studies, and ignored strong overlap in decisions between men and women.
Her paper, ‘Are Women Really More Risk-Averse Than Men?’, published this week, looked at previous studies which looked into how genders acted in gambling situations.
Nelson, the chairman of the economics department, said: “My paper goes over the literature and says “not so fast”.’
‘The paper finds a lot of the economics and finance research in behavioral differences between men and women is vastly exaggerated.’
Nelson, along with a research assistant, analysed 24 articles which mainly concentrated on gambling habits – with most papers concluding that women are less willing to gamble.
Nelson did see small differences in the averages of the two genders in how much risk they are willing to take – but the conclusions seemed to maximise these differences
She said: ‘Academic articles hide that there is a lot of overlap between men and women.’
She also pointed out that much of the research was based on artificial set-ups, such as by asking participants to play lottery-style games in research facilities.
She said: ‘That’s easy to do with a bunch of undergraduates in a psych lab.’
According to ABC News, at least one researcher, after reading Nelson’s work, acknowledged that he may have over-stated the ‘robustness’ of previous findings.
Swedish scholar Kimmo Eriksson, in a 2010 paper called ‘Emotional reactions to losing explain gender differences in entering a risky lottery’ acknowledged that he had oversimplified previous research.
He said that previous studies showed that ‘females’ lower risk preferences and less risky behavior is robust across a variety of contexts.’
But the previous research studies he quoted had only seen a 60/40 majority of studies suggesting that women gambled more – the ‘sizable minority’ of 40 per cent showed either a negative or close to zero correlation.
In a blog, he wrote, in translation: ‘Julie Nelson is of course right that robustness was too strong a word.’
Julie warned that stereotypes based on gender and risk-aversion – particularly when perpetrated in studies – could lead to greater cultural bias in the workplace and society.
She added that society’s generalisations could impact on people’s decisions – for instance a cultural perception around gender-based gambling could influence someone more than an actual biological difference.
She even speculated: ‘Could the financial crisis that began in 2008 be attributed, at least in part, to issues of sex and gender?’
‘In the wake of the crisis, several commentators asked whether women leaders would have prevented it, or whether it would have happened “if Lehman Brothers had been Lehman Sisters”.
‘The evidence reviewed in this essay suggests, however, that the biological sex of the financial decision-makers or regulators is likely not the most important factor.’
Fonte: Daily Mail
Em boa hora enviámos para a Comissão Europeia o entendimento que norteia o nosso trabalho desde 2004
Entendemos que devem ser elaborados estudos em prestigiadas universidades, em cooperação com operadores e reguladores, recorrendo às bases de registos dos jogos na internet para estudar com precisão os comportamentos e os hábitos dos jogadores. Os resultados destes estudos podem proporcionar uma base empírica à comunidade científica internacional na área da investigação em comportamentos de dependência
Entendemos que devem ser lançadas campanhas maciças de educação, através de diversos canais de comunicação, com o objectivo de chegar efectivamente a toda a população, de maneira que esta possa perceber que existe uma verdadeira politica europeia em relação ao jogo e que as condições para um exercício responsável da actividade estão dadas
A criação de observatórios do jogo que alertem e informem os consumidores sobre as práticas de cada operador poderá ser um incentivo para a implementação de boas práticas nos seus sítios de jogo online. A diferenciação positiva, em relação a uma concorrência pouco ética, poderá traduzir-se num capital de confiança junto dos jogadores.
Criação de redes de assistência para jogadores compulsivos, começando pelos centros que já estão a trabalhar no tratamento das ludopatias. Esses centros deverão funcionar sobre uma plataforma tecnológica adequada que permita o intercâmbio de experiências, a actualização de conhecimentos e a colaboração mútua.
O programa Jogo Responsável deverá contribuir para assegurar a protecção dos indivíduos, e da sociedade em geral, das consequências negativas do jogo e apostas a dinheiro e simultaneamente proteger o direito de quem pretende jogar.
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