Jogos a Dinheiro – Rede de Responsabilidade Social

Psychological Correlates of Disordered Gambling Tendencies Among Chinese High School and Undergraduate Students

Título: Psychological Correlates of Disordered Gambling Tendencies Among Chinese High School and Undergraduate Students
Autores: Anise M. S. Wu, Mark H. C. Lai, Kwok-Kit Tong, Shu Yu
Ano: 2016


Young people are vulnerable to disordered gambling in Chinese societies, such as Macao. This study aimed to assess the extent to which psychological factors (i.e., self-esteem, negative attitudes, subjective norms, and refusal self-efficacy) are associated with disordered gambling relative to two different youth populations. We recruited 809 high school students and 427 undergraduate students in a survey with anonymous, structured questionnaires. As expected, student gamblers reported significantly fewer negative attitudes, more positive subjective norms, and lower refusal self-efficacy than nongamblers. The undergraduate sample reported more positive subjective norms but higher refusal self-efficacy and self-esteem than the high school sample. Refusal self-efficacy was a negative correlate of disordered gambling symptoms in both samples, after gender was controlled for. Moreover, the indirect protective effect of self-esteem on disordered gambling via increasing refusal self-efficacy was also found. The findings suggest that global self-esteem and gambling refusal self-efficacy should be particularly emphasized in preventive interventions for disordered gambling among young gamblers.


  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. (2011). The theory of planned behaviour: reactions and reflections. Psychology & Health, 26, 1113–1127. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2011.613995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2009). Exploratory structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 16, 397–438. doi: 10.1080/10705510903008204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blinn-Pike, L., Worthy, L. S., & Jonkman, J. N. (2007). Disordered gambling among college students: a meta-analytic synthesis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 175–183. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9036-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blinn-Pike, L., Worthy, L. S., & Jonkman, J. N. (2010). Adolescent gambling: a review of an emerging field of research. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47, 223–236. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.05.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Casey, L. M., Oei, T. P. S., Melville, K. M., Bourke, E., & Newcombe, P. A. (2008). Measuring self-efficacy in gambling: the gambling refusal self-efficacy questionnaire. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 229–246. doi: 10.1007/s10899-007-9076-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chein, J., Albert, D., O’Brien, L., Uckert, K., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Peers increase adolescent risk taking by enhancing activity in the brain’s reward circuitry. Developmental Science, 14, F1–F10. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010.01035.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233–255. doi: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarke, D. (2008). Older adults’ gambling motivation and problem gambling: a comparative study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 175–192. doi: 10.1007/s10899-008-9090-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Crone, E. A., & van der Molen, M. W. (2004). Developmental changes in real life decision making: performance on a gambling task previously shown to depend on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Developmental Neuropsychology, 25, 251–279. doi: 10.1207/s15326942dn2503_2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Delfabbro, P., Lahn, J., & Grabosky, P. (2006). Psychosocial correlates of problem gambling in Australian students. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 587–595.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2000). Prevalence estimates of adolescent gambling: a comparison of the SOGS-RA, DSM-IV-J, and the GA 20 questions. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 227–251. doi: 10.1023/A:1009485031719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Desai, R. A., Maciejewski, P. K., Dausey, D. J., Caldarone, B. J., & Potenza, M. N. (2004). Health correlates of recreation gambling in older adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1672–1679. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.9.1672.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dickson, L. M., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2002). The prevention of gambling problems in youth: a conceptual framework. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 97–159. doi: 10.1023/A:1015557115049.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  18. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  19. Geng, L., Jiang, T., & Han, D. (2011). Relationships among self-esteem, self-efficacy, and faith in people in Chinese heroin abusers. Social Behavior and Personality, 39, 797–806. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2011.39.6.797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greenberg, J. L., Lewis, S. E., & Dodd, D. K. (1999). Overlapping addictions and self-esteem among college men and women. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 565–571. doi: 10.1016/S0306-4603(98)00080-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Griffiths, M. D., & Parke, J. (2010). Adolescent gambling on the internet: a review. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 22, 59–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (1998). Adolescent gambling behavior: a prevalence study and examination of the correlates associated with excessive gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 319–345. doi: 10.1023/A:1023068925328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. He, Y. (2013). The situation, factors and prevention of youth gambling in mainland China. Youth Exploration, 178, 81–89. doi: 10.1100/tsw.2010.167.Google Scholar
  24. Ho, K. W., Chung, K. W., Hui-Lo, M. C., Wong, S. K. S. (2012) The study of Hong Kong people’s participation in gambling activities. Retrieved from (Archived at
  25. Hooper, C. J., Luciana, M., Conklin, H. M., & Yarger, R. S. (2004). Adolescents’ performance on the Iowa Gambling Task: implications for the development of decision making and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1148–1158. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson, A. C., Dowling, N., Thomas, S. A., Bond, L., & Patton, G. (2008). Adolescent gambling behaviour and attitudes: a prevalence study and correlates in an Australian population. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6, 325–352. doi: 10.1007/s11469-008-9149-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacobs, D. F. (1988). Evidence for a common dissociative-like reaction among addicts. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 27–37. doi: 10.1007/BF01043526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jiménez-Murcia, S., Álvarez-Moya, E. M., Stinchfield, R., Fernández-Aranda, F., Granero, R., Aymamí, N., Gómez-Peña, M., Jaurrieta, N., Bove, F., & Menchón, J. (2010). Age of onset in pathological gambling: clinical, therapeutic and personality correlates. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 235–248. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9175-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kaur, I., Schutte, N. S., & Thorsteinsson, E. B. (2006). Gambling control self-efficacy as a mediator of the effects of low emotional intelligence on problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 405–411. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9029-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kusyszyn, I., & Rutter, R. (1985). Personality characteristics of male heavy gamblers, light gamblers, nongamblers, and lottery players. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1, 59–63. doi: 10.1007/BF01019755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ladouceur, R., & Dubé, D. (1995). Prevalence of pathological gambling and associated problems in individuals who visit non-gambling video arcades. Journal of Gambling Studies, 11, 361–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Ladouceur, R., Boudreault, N., Jacques, C., & Vitaro, F. (1999). Pathological gambling and related problems among adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 8, 55–68. doi: 10.1300/J029v08n04_04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., Boutin, C., Lachance, S., Doucet, C., Leblond, J., & Jacques, C. (2001). Cognitive treatment of pathological gambling. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 11, 774–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Larimer, M. E., Neighbors, C., Lostutter, T. W., Whiteside, U., Cronce, J. M., Kaysen, D., & Walker, D. D. (2012). Brief motivational feedback and cognitive behavioral interventions for prevention of disordered gambling: A randomized clinical trial. Addiction, 107, 1148–1158. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03776.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): a new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Macao Social Welfare Bureau (2014). Report on a study of Macao people’s participation in gambling activities 2013. Retrieved from (Archived at
  37. Marsh, H. W. (1996). Positive and negative global self-esteem: a substantively meaningful distinction or artifactors? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 810–819. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.70.4.810.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Messerlian, C., Gillespie, M., & Derevensky, J. (2007). Beyond drugs and alcohol: including gambling in a high-risk behavioural framework. Paediatrics & Child Health, 12, 199–204.Google Scholar
  39. Moore, S. M., & Ohtsuka, K. (1999a). Beliefs about control over gambling among young people, and their relation to problem gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 13, 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moore, S. M., & Ohtsuka, K. (1999b). The prediction of gambling behavior and problem gambling from attitudes and perceived norms. Social Behavior & Personality, 27, 455–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2014). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  42. Neighbors, C., Lostutter, T., Whiterside, U., Fossos, N., Walker, D., & Larimer, M. (2007). Subjective norms and problem gambling among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 259–273. doi: 10.1007/s10899-007-9059-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Oei, T. P. S., Lin, C. D., & Raylu, N. (2008). The relationship between gambling cognitions, psychological states, and gambling: a cross-cultural study of Chinese and Caucasians in Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 147–161. doi: 10.1177/0022022107312587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 4, 507–514. doi: 10.1007/BF02296192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (2001). Updating and refining prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behaviour in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92, 168–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., & Vander Bilt, J. (1999). Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: a research synthesis. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1369–1376.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Shek, D. T. L. (2010). Positive youth development and behavioral intention to gamble among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 22, 163–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Symes, B. A., & Nicki, R. M. (1997). A preliminary consideration of cue-exposure, response-prevention treatment for pathological gambling behaviour: two case studies. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 145–157. doi: 10.1023/A:1024951301959.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Tang, C. S., & Oei, T. P. (2011). Gambling cognition and subjective well-being as mediators between perceived stress and problem gambling: a cross-cultural study on White and Chinese problem. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25, 511–520. doi: 10.1037/a0024013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Tang, C. S., & Wu, A. M. S. (2009). Screening for college problem gambling in Chinese societies: psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (C-SOGS). International Gambling Studies, 9, 263–274. doi: 10.1080/14459790903348194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tang, C. S., & Wu, A. M. S. (2010). Direct and indirect influences of fate control belief, gambling expectancy bias, and self-efficacy on problem gambling and negative mood among Chinese college students: a multiple mediation analysis. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 533–543. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9177-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Tang, C. S., & Wu, A. M. S. (2012). Gambling-related cognitive biases and pathological gambling among youths, young adults, and mature adults in Chinese societies. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(1), 139–154. doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9249-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Tang, C. S., Wu, A. M. S., Tang, J. Y. C., & Yan, E. C. W. (2010). Reliability, validity, and cut scores of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) for Chinese. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 145–158. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9147-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Toneatto, T., & Ladoceur, R. (2003). Treatment of pathological gambling: a critical review of the literature. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 284–292. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.17.4.284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Vandenberg, R., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–70. doi: 10.1177/109442810031002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Volberg, R. A., Reitzes, D. C., & Boles, J. (1997). Exploring the links between gambling, problem gambling, and self-esteem. Deviant Behavior, 18, 321–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Walker, G. J., Courneya, K. S., & Deng, J. Y. (2006). Ethnicity, gender, and the theory of planned behavior: the case of playing the lottery. Journal of Leisure Research, 38, 224–248.Google Scholar
  59. Wei, L., Wang, P., & Qin, Y. (2011). Cluster of health-risk behaviors in adolescents in Liuzhou city. Chinese Journal of Public Health, 6, 737–740.Google Scholar
  60. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Tidwell, M. C. O., & Hoffman, J. H. (2008). The prevalence of problem gambling among US adolescents and young adults: Results from a national survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24(2), 119–133Google Scholar
  61. Wong, Y. L. (2013). Why are in-grade retention rates so high in Macao? Current Issues in Education, 16(3), 1–15.Google Scholar
  62. Wong, S. S., & Tsang, S. K. (2012). Development and validation of the Chinese adolescent gambling expectancy scale. International Gambling Studies, 12, 309–329. doi: 10.1080/14459795.2012.672582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wood, R. E., & Bandura, A. (1989). Impact of conceptions of ability of self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 407–415.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Wu, A. M. S., & Lau, J. T. F. (2014). Gambling in China: socio-historical evolution and current challenges. Addiction, 110, 210–216. doi: 10.1111/add.12710.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Wu, A. M. S., & Tang, C. S. (2012). Problem gambling of Chinese college students: application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 315–324. doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9250-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Wu, A. M. S., Tao, V. Y. K., Tong, K., & Cheung, S. F. (2012). Psychometric evaluation of the inventory of Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behaviours (GMAB) among Chinese gamblers. International Gambling Studies, 12, 331–347. doi: 10.1080/14459795.2012.678273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wu, A. M. S., Lai, M. H. C., Tong, K., & Tao, V. Y. K. (2013). Chinese attitudes, norms, behavioral control and gambling involvement in Macao. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29, 749–763. doi: 10.1007/s10899-012-9344-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Wu, A. M. S., Lai, M. H. C., & Tong, K. (2015). Internet gambling among community adults and university students in Macao. Journal of Gambling Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10899-014-9451-8. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
  69. Yip, S., White, M., Grilo, C., & Potenza, M. (2010). An exploratory study of clinical measures associated with subsyndromal pathological gambling and its clinical correlates in patients with binge eating disorder. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 257–270. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9207-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yuan, Z. (2000). Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. Taipei, Taiwan: Yuan-Liou Publishing.Google Scholar
  71. Zhou, J. (2007). Analysis of the problem of young people gambling in rural and its countermeasure. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 35, 7666–7668. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0517-6611.2007.24.141.Google Scholar

Fonte: Springer
Rede de Responsabilidade Social (RRS)

Related Posts

Leave A Response