Jogos a Dinheiro – Rede de Responsabilidade Social

Differential Risk Factors Associated with Adolescent Addictive Disorders: a Comparison between Substance Use Disorders and Internet/Gaming Addiction

Título: Differential Risk Factors Associated with Adolescent Addictive Disorders: a Comparison between Substance Use Disorders and Internet/Gaming Addiction
Autores: Rebecca H. S. Ong, Chao Xu Peh, Song Guo
Ano: 2016


The present study investigated if adolescent substance use disorders (SUD) and internet/gaming addiction (IGA) exhibit shared associations with delinquency and childhood adversity. We examined data from 260 adolescents who presented at an addiction treatment center. Information on diagnosis, history of delinquency and childhood adversity were obtained based on retrospective chart review. Logistic regression was conducted to examine factors associated with SUD and IGA. Adolescents with older age of presentation, non-Chinese ethnicity, a history of delinquency or childhood adversity were more likely to have SUD; while adolescents with non-Chinese ethnicity or a history of delinquency were less likely to have IGA. Additionally, IGA was not associated with age of presentation, gender, or childhood adversity. Adolescent SUD and IGA have different associations with risk factors. IGA does not appear to belong with a cluster of adolescent problem behaviors. More research is needed to clarify diagnostic and etiologic conceptualizations.


  1. American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes, G. M., Hoffman, J. H., Welte, J. W., Farrell, M. P., & Dintcheff, B. A. (2006). Adolescents’ time use: effects on substance use, delinquency and sexual activity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(5), 697–710. doi: 10.1007/s10964-006-9075-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2008). The statistical association between drug misuse and crime: a meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(2), 107–118. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2008.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Block, J. J. (2008). Issues for DSM-V: internet addiction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(3), 306–307. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07101556.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, P., & Jacobson, K. C. (2012). Developmental trajectories of substance use from early adolescence to young adulthood: gender and racial/ethnic differences. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50(2), 154–163. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.05.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Curcio, A. L., Mak, A. S., & George, A. M. (2013). Do adolescent delinquency and problem drinking share psychosocial risk factors? A literature review. Addictive Behaviors, 38(4), 2003–2013. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.12.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dakof, G. A. (2000). Understanding gender differences in adolescent drug abuse: issues of comorbidity and family functioning. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 32(1), 25–32. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2000.10400209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. De Leo, J. A., & Wulfert, E. (2013). Problematic internet use and other risky behaviors in college students: an application of problem-behavior theory. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(1), 133–141. doi: 10.1037/a0030823.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. De Looze, M., Ter Bogt, T. F. M., Raaijmakers, Q. A. W., Pickett, W., Kuntsche, E., & Vollebergh, W. A. M. (2015). Cross-national evidence for the clustering and psychosocial correlates of adolescent risk behaviours in 27 countries. European Journal of Public Health, 25(1), 50–56. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku083.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Demetrovics, Z., Szeredi, B., & Rozsa, S. (2008). The three-factor model of internet addiction: the development of the problematic internet use questionnaire. Behavior Research Methods, 40(2), 563–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., Chapman, D. P., Giles, W. H., & Anda, R. F. (2003). Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: the adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics, 111(3), 564–572.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dube, S. R., Miller, J. W., Brown, D. W., Giles, W. H., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., et al. (2006). Adverse childhood experiences and the association with ever using alcohol and initiating alcohol use during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(4), 444.e1–444.10. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.06.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Durkee, T., Carli, V., Floderus, B., Wasserman, C., Sarchiapone, M., Apter, A., et al. (2016). Pathological internet use and risk-behaviors among European adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(3), 294. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13030294.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Farrington, D. P., & Loeber, R. (2000). Epidemiology of juvenile violence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9(4), 733–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ford, J. D., Elhai, J. D., Connor, D. F., & Frueh, B. C. (2010). Poly-victimization and risk of posttraumatic, depressive, and substance use disorders and involvement in delinquency in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(6), 545–552. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.11.212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Greydanus, D. E., & Greydanus, M. M. (2012). Internet use, misuse, and addiction in adolescents: current issues and challenges. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 24(4), 283–289. doi: 10.1515/ijamh.2012.041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Griffiths, M. D., van Rooij, A. J., Kardefelt-Winther, D., Starcevic, V., Kiraly, O., Pallesen, S., et al. (2016). Working towards an international consensus on criteria for assessing internet gaming disorder: A critical commentary on Petry et al. (2014). Addiction, 111(1), 167–175. doi: 10.1111/add.13057.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ho, R. C., Zhang, M. W. B., Tsang, T. Y., Toh, A. H., Pan, F., Lu, Y., et al. (2014). The association between internet addiction and psychiatric co-morbidity: a meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 14, 183. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-14-183.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Hovdestad, W. E., Tonmyr, L., Wekerle, C., & Thornton, T. (2011). Why is childhood maltreatment associated with adolescent substance abuse? A critical review of explanatory models. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9(5), 525–542. doi: 10.1007/s11469-011-9322-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hussey, J. M., Chang, J. J., & Kotch, J. B. (2006). Child maltreatment in the United States: prevalence, risk factors, and adolescent health consequences. Pediatrics, 118(3), 933–942. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-2452.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Jessor, R. (1991). Risk behavior in adolescence: a psychosocial framework for understanding and action. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12(8), 597–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Johansson, A., & Gotestam, K. G. (2004). Internet addiction: characteristics of a questionnaire and prevalence in Norwegian youth (12-18 years). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45(3), 223–229. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2004.00398.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ko, C.-H., Yen, J.-Y., Chen, C.-C., Chen, S.-H., & Yen, C.-F. (2005). Proposed diagnostic criteria of internet addiction for adolescents. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(11), 728–733. doi: 10.1097/01.nmd.0000185891.13719.54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ko, C.-H., Yen, J.-Y., Yen, C.-F., Chen, C.-S., Weng, C.-C., & Chen, C.-C. (2008). The association between internet addiction and problematic alcohol use in adolescents: the problem behavior model. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 11(5), 571–576. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2007.0199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuss, D. J., Shorter, G. W., Rooij, A. J., Griffiths, M. D., & Schoenmakers, T. M. (2013). Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model – a preliminary study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 12(3), 351–366. doi: 10.1007/s11469-013-9459-9.Google Scholar
  26. Lam, L. T., Peng, Z., Mai, J., & Jing, J. (2009). Factors associated with internet addiction among adolescents. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(5), 551–555. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2009.0036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Layne, C. M., Greeson, J. K. P., Ostrowski, S. A., Kim, S., Reading, S., Vivrette, R. L., et al. (2014). Cumulative trauma exposure and high risk behavior in adolescence: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(Suppl 1), S40–S49. doi: 10.1037/a0037799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009). Development and validation of a game addiction scale for adolescents. Media Psychology, 12(1), 77–95. doi: 10.1080/15213260802669458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & White, H. R. (1999). Developmental aspects of delinquency and internalizing problems and their association with persistent juvenile substance use between ages 7 and 18. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28(3), 322–332. doi: 10.1207/S15374424jccp280304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Mak, K.-K., Lai, C.-M., Watanabe, H., Kim, D.-I., Bahar, N., Ramos, M., et al. (2014). Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 17(11), 720–728. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mason, W. A., & Windle, M. (2002). Reciprocal relations between adolescent substance use and delinquency: a longitudinal latent variable analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111(1), 63–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Mason, W. A., January, S.-A. A., Chmelka, M. B., Parra, G. R., Savolainen, J., Miettunen, J., et al. (2016). Cumulative contextual risk at birth in relation to adolescent substance use, conduct problems, and risky sex: general and specific predictive associations in a Finnish birth cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 58, 161–166. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.02.031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674–701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ni, X., Yan, H., Chen, S., & Liu, Z. (2009). Factors influencing internet addiction in a sample of freshmen university students in China. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(3), 327–330. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2008.0321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Park, S. K., Kim, J. Y., & Cho, C. B. (2008). Prevalence of internet addiction and correlations with family factors among south Korean adolescents. Adolescence, 43(172), 895–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Petry, N. M., Rehbein, F., Gentile, D. A., Lemmens, J. S., Rumpf, H.-J., Mossle, T., et al. (2014). An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach. Addiction, 109(9), 1399–1406. doi: 10.1111/add.12457.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Poli, R., & Agrimi, E. (2012). Internet addiction disorder: prevalence in an Italian student population. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 66(1), 55–59. doi: 10.3109/08039488.2011.605169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Sussman, S., Skara, S., & Ames, S. L. (2008). Substance abuse among adolescents. Substance Use & Misuse, 43(12–13), 1802–1828. doi: 10.1080/10826080802297302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Swendsen, J., Burstein, M., Case, B., Conway, K. P., Dierker, L., He, J., et al. (2012). Use and abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs in US adolescents: results of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(4), 390–398. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1503.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Tonmyr, L., Thornton, T., Draca, J., & Wekerle, C. (2010). A review of childhood maltreatment and adolescent substance use relationship. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 6(3), 223–234. doi: 10.2174/157340010791792581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Trickett, P. K., Negriff, S., Ji, J., & Peckins, M. (2011). Child maltreatment and adolescent development. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 3–20. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00711.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Walther, B., Morgenstern, M., & Hanewinkel, R. (2012). Co-occurrence of addictive behaviours: personality factors related to substance use, gambling and computer gaming. European Addiction Research, 18(4), 167–174. doi: 10.1159/000335662.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Weinstein, A., & Lejoyeux, M. (2010). Internet addiction or excessive internet use. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 36(5), 277–283. doi: 10.3109/00952990.2010.491880.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Yen, J.-Y., Yen, C.-F., Chen, C.-C., Chen, S.-H., & Ko, C.-H. (2007). Family factors of internet addiction and substance use experience in Taiwanese adolescents. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(3), 323–329. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2006.994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yen, J.-Y., Ko, C.-H., Yen, C.-F., Chen, C.-S., & Chen, C.-C. (2009). The association between harmful alcohol use and internet addiction among college students: comparison of personality. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63(2), 218–224. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.01943.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Fonte: Springer
Rede de Responsabilidade Social (RRS)

Related Posts

Leave A Response