Jogos a Dinheiro – Rede de Responsabilidade Social

2017 | Daily Grind: A Comparison of Causality Orientations, Emotions, and Fantasy Sport Participation

Daily Grind: A Comparison of Causality Orientations, Emotions, and Fantasy Sport Participation

Autores:  Brendan Dwyer | James Weiner


In 2015, daily fantasy football entered the fantasy sports market as an offshoot of the traditional, season-long form of the game. With quicker payouts and less commitment, the new activity has drawn comparisons to other forms of illegal gambling, and the determination of whether it is a primarily a game of skill or chance has become the center of the comparison. For the most part, legal commentators and society, in general, views traditional, season-long fantasy football as an innocuous, social activity governed equally by both skill and chance. Little evidence exists, however, about participant perception of skill and chance components in daily fantasy football. The current study surveyed 535 daily and traditional-only fantasy football participants in order to understand differences and similarities in the causality orientations of participation (skill or chance). In addition, enjoyment and anxiety were tested for mediating effects on causality orientations and consumption behavior. The results suggest the differences between the activities are not extreme. However, differences were found in which causality orientations influenced enjoyment and which emotion mediated the relationship between perceived skill and consumption.

  • Breen, R. B., & Zuckerman, M. (1999). ‘Chasing’ in gambling behavior: Personality and cognitive determinants. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 1097–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Broman-Fulks, J. J., Urbaniak, A., Bondy, C. L., & Toomey, K. J. (2014). Anxiety sensitivity and risk-taking behavior. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 27, 619–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Brown, T. A. (2012). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  • Casler, K., Bickel, L., & Hackett, E. (2013). Separate but equal? A comparison of participants and data gathered via Amazon’s MTurk, social media, and face-to-face behavioral testing. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2156–2160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Cohen, J. (1992). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  • Dawson, S., Bloch, P. H., & Ridgway, N. (1990). Shopping motives, emotional states, and retail outcome. Journal of Retailing, 66, 408–427.Google Scholar
  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The General Causality Orientations Scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19(2), 109–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.), (2002). An overview of self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. In Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3–33). Rochester, New York: The University of Rochester Press.
  • Drayer, J., Shapiro, S. L., Dwyer, B., Morse, A. L., & White, J. (2010). The effects of fantasy football participation on NFL consumption: A qualitative analysis. Sport Management Review,13, 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Dwyer, B. (2011a). Divided loyalty? An analysis of fantasy football involvement and fan loyalty to individual National Football League (NFL) teams. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 445–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Dwyer, B. (2011b). The impact of attitudes and fantasy football involvement on intentions to watch NFL teams on television. International Journal of Sport Communication, 4, 375–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Dwyer, B., & Kim, Y. (2011). For love or money: Developing and validating a motivational scale for fantasy football participation. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 70–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Dwyer, B., & LeCrom, C. W. (2013). Is fantasy trumping reality? The redefined National Football League experience of novice fantasy football participants. Journal of Contemporary Athletics, 7(3), 119.Google Scholar
  • Dwyer, B., Lupinek, J., & Achen, R. M. (2016). Fantasy v. reality: Exploring the BIRGing and CORFing behavior of fantasy football participants. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 26, 158–171.Google Scholar
  • Dwyer, B., Shapiro, S. L., & Drayer, J. (2013). Segmenting motivation: An analysis of fantasy baseball motives and mediated sport consumption. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 20, 129–137.Google Scholar
  • Ekkekakis, P., Hall, E. E., & Petruzzello, S. J. (1999). Measuring state anxiety in the context of acute exercise using the state anxiety inventory: An attempt to resolve the brouhaha. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 21(3), 205–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Eriksson, K., & Simpson, B. (2010). Emotional reactions to losing explain gender differences in entering a risky lottery. Judgment and Decision Making, 5, 159–175.Google Scholar
  • Fantasy Sports Trade Association. (2016a). Industry demographics: Actionable insights and insightful data. Retrieved from
  • Fantasy Sports Trade Association. (2016b). Why fantasy sports is not gambling: Understanding a game of skill. Retrieved from
  • Farquhar, L. K., & Meeds, R. (2007). Types of fantasy sports users and their motivations. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1208–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  • Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 382–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior, 26(4), 331–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Gouker, D. (2015). FanDuel studies: Seasonlong and daily fantasy sports players exhibit key differences. Legal Sports Report. Retrieved from
  • Graves, L. E., Ridgers, N. D., Williams, K., Stratton, G., & Atkinson, G. T. (2010). The physiological cost and enjoyment of Wii Fit in adolescents, young adults, and older adults. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 7, 393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Hackfort, D., & Schwenkmezger, P. (1989). Measuring anxiety in sports: Perspectives and problems. In D. Hackfort & C. D. Speilberger (Eds.), Anxiety in sports: An international perspective (pp. 55–74). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  • Hunter, M. (2016). DFS strategy: Multi-lineup generation and player exposure. RotoGraphs. Retrieved from
  • Kendzierski, D., & DeCarlo, K. J. (1991). Physical activity enjoyment scale: Two validation studies. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 13(1), 50–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Kim, J. Y., Shim, J. P., & Ahn, K. M. (2011). Social networking service: Motivation, pleasure, and behavioral intention to use. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 51(4), 92–101.Google Scholar
  • Kim, H. S., Wohl, M. J., Salmon, M. M., Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (2015). Do social casino gamers migrate to online gambling? An assessment of migration rate and potential predictors. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31, 1819–1831.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Koestner, R., & Zuckerman, M. (1994). Causality orientations, failure, and achievement. Journal of Personality, 62(3), 321–346.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Lee, W.-J., Kwak, D. H., Lim, C., Pederson, P. M., & Miloch, K. S. (2010). Effects of personality and gender on fantasy sports game participation: The moderating role of perceived knowledge. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 427–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Lesieur, H. R. (1979). The compulsive gambler’s spiral of options and involvement. Psychiatry,42, 79–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Leykin, Y., & DeRubeis, R. J. (2010). Decision-making styles and depressive symptomatology: Development of the Decision Styles Questionnaire. Judgment and Decision Making, 5, 506–521.Google Scholar
  • Lloyd, K. M., & Auld, C. J. (2002). The role of leisure in determining quality of life: Issues of content and measurement. Social Indicators Research, 57, 43–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • MacCrimmon, K. R., & Wehrung, D. A. (1986). Assessing risk propensity. In L. Daboni, A. Montesano, & M. Lines (Eds.), Recent developments in the foundations of utility and risk theory (pp. 291–309). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
  • Martin, R. J., Nelson, S. E., & Gallucci, A. R. (2016). Game on: Past year gambling, gambling-related problems, and fantasy sports gambling among college athletes and non-athletes. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32, 567–579.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • McCormick, R. A., Russo, A., Ramirez, L., & Taber, J. I. (1984). Affective disorders among pathological gamblers seeking treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 215–218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Meyer, G., von Meduna, M., Brosowski, T., & Hayer, T. (2013). Is poker a game of skill or chance? A quasi-experimental study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29, 535–550.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Morrison, M., Gan, S., Dubelaar, C., & Oppewal, H. (2011). In-store music and aroma influences on shopper behavior and satisfaction. Journal of Business Research, 64, 558–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Mowen, J. C., & Minor, M. (1998). Consumer behavior (5th ed.). London: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  • Murphy, G. C., Foreman, P. E., Simpson, C. A., Molloy, G. N., & Molloy, E. K. (1999). The development of a locus of control measure predictive of injured athletes’ adherence to treatment. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2, 145–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Myrseth, H., Brunborg, G. S., & Eidem, M. (2010). Differences in cognitive distortions between pathological and non-pathological gamblers with preferences for chance or skill games. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 561–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Neighbors, C., Larimer, M. E., Markman Geisner, I., & Knee, C. R. (2004). Feeling controlled and drinking motives among college students: Contingent self-esteem as a mediator. Self and Identity, 3(3), 207–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Nesbit, T. M., & King, K. A. (2010). The impact of fantasy sports on television viewership. Journal of Media Economics, 23, 24–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Rodriguez, L. M., Neighbors, C., Rinker, D. V., & Tackett, J. L. (2015). Motivational profiles of gambling behavior: Self-determination theory, gambling motives, and gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31, 1597–1615.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Self-regulation and the problem of human autonomy: Does psychology need choice, self-determination, and will? Journal of Personality, 74, 1557–1586.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  • Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 344–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Sitkin, S. B., & Weingart, L. R. (1995). Determinants of risky decision-making behavior: A test of the mediating role of risk perceptions and propensity. Academy of Management Journal,38(6), 1573–1592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Solberg, P. A., Halvari, H., & Ommundsen, Y. (2013). Linking exercise and causality orientations to change in well-being among older adults: Does change in motivational variables play a role? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 1259–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Stanton, J. M., Sinar, E. F., Balzer, W. K., & Smith, P. C. (2002). Issues and strategies for reducing the length of self-report scales. Personnel Psychology, 55, 167–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  • Steinberg, L. (2014). The fantasy football explosion. Forbes. Retrieved from
  • Suri, S., & Watts, D. J. (2011). Cooperation and contagion in web-based, networked public goods experiments. PLoS ONE, 6(3), e16836.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  • Troy, D. (2014). Is fantasy football stressing you out? Advocate Health Care. Retrieved from
  • Westbrook, R. A., & Black, W. C. (1985). A motivation-based shopper typology. Journal of Retailing, 61, 78–103.Google Scholar
  • Wulfert, E., Roland, B., Hartley, J., Wang, N., & Franco, C. (2005). Heart rate arousal and excitement in gambling: Winners v. losers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 311–329.
Fonte: Springer

Related Posts

Leave A Response