Jogos a Dinheiro – Rede de Responsabilidade Social

A Meta-analytical Synthesis and Examination of Pathological and Problem Gambling Rates and Associated Moderators Among College Students, 1987–2016

Título: A Meta-analytical Synthesis and Examination of Pathological and Problem Gambling Rates and Associated Moderators Among College Students, 1987–2016
Autores: Donald E. Nowak
Ano: 2017


The problem of gambling addiction is especially noteworthy among college students, many of whom have the resources, proximity, free time, and desire to become involved in the myriad options of gambling now available. Although limited attention has been paid specifically to college student gambling in the body of literature, there have been three published meta-analyses estimating the prevalence of probable pathological gambling among college students. The research presented is the largest and most comprehensive, presenting an up-to-date proportion of those students worldwide exhibiting gambling pathology as assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen, and is the first to include estimates of sub-clinical problem gambling. A thorough literature review and coding procedure resulted in 124 independent data estimates retrieved from 72 studies conducted between 1987 and the present, surveying 41,989 university students worldwide. The estimated proportion of probable pathological gamblers among students was computed at 6.13%, while the rate of problem gambling was computed at 10.23%. Statistical significance was found in the influence of the percentage of non-white students on pathological gambling rates. The implications of this and other moderator analyses such as age and year of studies, as well as recommendations for future practice in dealing with college students and gambling disorder on campus are outlined and described in detail. Suggestions and rationales for future avenues of research in the area are also described.


  1. Studies marked with an asterisk (*) were included in the meta-analyses.Google Scholar
  2. *Adams, G. R., Sullivan, A., Horton, K. D., Menna, R., & Guilmette, A. (2007). A study of differences in Canadian university students’ gambling and proximity to a casino. Journal of Gambling Issues,19, 9–18. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2007.19.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM 5: Diagnostic and statistical manual (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist,55(5), 469.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnett, J. J. (2004). Adolescence and emerging adulthood: A cultural approach (2nd ed.). Auckland: Pearson Education New Zealand.Google Scholar
  6. *Arthur, D., Tong, W., Chen, C., Hing, A., Sagara-Rosemeyer, M., Kua, E., et al. (2008). The validity and reliability of four measures of gambling behaviour in a sample of Singapore university students. Journal of Gambling Studies,24(4), 451–462. doi: 10.1007/s10899-008-9103-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. *Baboushkin, H. R., Hardoon, K. K., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2001). Underlying cognitions in gambling behavior among university students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,31(7), 1409–1430. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2001.tb02680.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bailey, E. A., Burroughs, S. W., Dabit, J. S., Hambrick, R. S., & Theriot, P. B. (1997). The lure ofcasino gambling and its potential impact on college students in Mississippi. College Student Affairs Journal,17, 81–92.Google Scholar
  9. Barnes, G. M., Welte, J. W., Hoffman, J. H., & Tidwell, M. C. (2010). Comparisons of gambling and alcohol use among college students and noncollege young people in the United States. Journal of American College Health,58(5), 443–452.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Beaudoin, C. M., & Cox, B. J. (1999). Characteristics of problem gambling in a Canadian context: A preliminary study using a DSM-IV-based questionnaire. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry,44, 483–487.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker, B. J. (2000). Multivariate meta-analysis. In H. E. A. Tinsley & S. D. Brown (Eds.), Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling (pp. 499–525). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. *Bhullar, N., Simons, L., & Joshi, K. (2012). The significance of gender and ethnicity in collegiate gambling and drinking. Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment,11(3), 154–164. doi: 10.1097/ADT.0b013e31822f9ca9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blinn-Pike, L., Lokken Worthy, S., & Jonkman, J. N. (2007). Disordered gambling among college students: A meta-analytic synthesis. Journal of Gambling Studies,23(2), 175–183. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9036-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. *Blinn-Pike, L., & Worthy, S. (2008). Undergraduate women who have gambled in casinos: Are they at risk?. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal,37(1), 71–83. doi: 10.1177/1077727X08322861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. Chichester: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. *Bourn, D. F. (1998). Gambling behavior among college studentathletes, nonathletes, and former athletes. Master’s thesis. Retrieved from SPORTDiscus with Full Text, EBSCOhost. Accessed 4 Jan 2014.Google Scholar
  17. Brownson, R. C., Newschaffer, C. J., & Ali-Abarghoui, F. (1997). Policy research for disease prevention: Challenges and practical recommendations. American Journal of Public Health,87(5), 735–739.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. *Burger, T. D. (2007). College students and gambling: Gauging the effects of gender on impulse control, sensation seeking, and mental health as predictors of involvement. Dissertation Abstracts International (Vol. 67).Google Scholar
  19. *Butler, L. (2011). Using the multiple choice procedure to measure college student gambling. Dissertation Abstracts International (Vol. 71).Google Scholar
  20. *Canu, W. H., & Schatz, N. K. (2011). A weak association between traits of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and gambling in college students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy,25(4), 334–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. *Carruthers, C., Platz, L., & Busser, J. (2006). Gambling motivation of individuals who gamble pathologically. Therapeutic Recreation Journal,40(3), 165–181.Google Scholar
  22. *Chiu, J. (1997). Predictors of gambling behavior among college students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A (Vol. 58).Google Scholar
  23. *Clarke, D. (2003). Gambling and the trait of addiction in a sample of New Zealand university students. New Zealand Journal of Psychology,32(1), 39–48.Google Scholar
  24. *Clarke, D. (2004). Impulsiveness, locus of control, motivation, and problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies,20(4), 319–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. *Clarke, D. (2006). Impulsivity as a mediator in the relationship between depression and problem gambling. Personality and Individual Differences,40, 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. College Enrollment Statistics. (2014). Retrieved April 3, 2014 from
  27. Cooper, H., Hedges, L. V., & Valentine, J. C. (2009). The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  28. Cunningham, J. A., Sobell, L. C., Sobell, M. B., Agrawal, S., & Toneatto, T. (1993). Barriers to treatment: Why alcohol and drug abusers delay or never seek treatment. Addictive Behaviors,18(3), 347–353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. *Devlin, A. S., & Peppard, D. (1996). Casino use by college students. Psychological Reports,78, 899–906.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000). Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics,56, 455–463.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ellenbogen, S., Jacobs, D., Derevensky, J., Gupta, R., & Paskus, T. (2008). Gambling behavior among college student-athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology,20(3), 349–362. doi: 10.1080/10413200802056685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. *Elsasser, G. N., et al. (2010). A survey of pharmacy students’ experiences with gambling. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education,74(2), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. *Engwall, D., Hunter, R., & Steinberg, M. (2004). Gambling and other risk behaviors on university campuses. Journal of American College Health,52(6), 245–255. doi: 10.3200/JACH.52.6.245-256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. *Etel, C. C., Tabchi, S. S., Khalil, R., Hlais, S. S., & Richa, S. S. (2013). Prévalence du jeu pathologique chez les étudiants libanais. L’encéphale: Revue de Psychiatrie Clinique Biologique et Thérapeutique,39(1), 1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2012.06.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ferguson, C. J., & Brannick, M. T. (2012). Publication bias in psychological science: Prevalence, methods for identifying and controlling, and implications for the use of meta-analyses. Psychological Methods,17(1), 120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. *Fortune, E. E., & Goodie, A. S. (2010). Comparing the utility of a modified Diagnostic Interview for Gambling Severity (DIGS) with the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) as a research screen in college students. Journal of Gambling Studies,26(4), 639–644. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9189-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. *Frank, M. (1990). Underage gambling in Atlantic City casinos. Psychological Reports,67,907–912.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Friess, S. (2009). Las Vegas sags as conventions cancel. The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2014 at http://www.nytimes.cornf2009/02/15/us/15vegas.html?r=1&scp=3&sq=obama%20las%20vegas&st=cse.
  39. *García, E., & Correa, C. A. (1998). El juego patológico en estudiantes universitarios. Acta psiquiátrica y psicológica de América Latina,44(1), 63–68.Google Scholar
  40. *Ghandour, L., & El Sayed, D. (2013). Gambling behaviors among university youth: Does one’s religious affiliation and level of religiosity play a role?. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,27(1), 279–286. doi: 10.1037/a0030172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. *Gillis, A. A. (2012). Delay discounting among American Indian and nonIndian college students (Order No. 3541390, The University of North Dakota) (Vol. 76). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (1114481858).
  42. *Hardy, T. W. (2002). A comparative examination of the casino gambling habits of college students in four southeastern higher education institutions: Implications for higher education decisionmakers (Order No. 3067282, The University of Alabama) (Vol. 133). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (304803537).
  43. *Harris, N. M. (2010). Factors associated with internet gambling in university students(Order No. MR71746, Lakehead University (Canada)) (Vol. 94). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (860019952).
  44. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  45. *Hulsey, C. D. (2000). Predictors of problem gambling among college student. (Order No. 9978904, The University of Memphis) (Vol. 54). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (304610699).
  46. *Jonkman, J., Blinn-Pike, L., & Worthy, S. (2013). How is gambling related to perceived parenting style and/or family environment for college students?. Journal of Behavioral Addictions,2(1), 42–49. doi: 10.1556/JBA.1.2012.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. *Kerber, C. (2005). Problem and pathological gambling among college athletes. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry,17(4), 243–247. doi: 10.1080/10401230500295388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. *Kido, M., & Shimazaki, T. (2007). Reliability and validity of the modified Japanese version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Japanese Journal of Psychology,77(6), 547–552. doi: 10.4992/jjpsy.77.547.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. *Kuentzel, J. G., Henderson, M. J., & Melville, C. L. (2008). The impact of social desirability biases on self-report among college student and problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies,24(3), 307–319. doi: 10.1007/s10899-008-9094-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. LaBrie, R. A., Shaffer, H. J., LaPlante, D. A., & Wechsler, H. (2003). Correlates of college student gambling in the United States. The Journal of American College Health,52(22), 53–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. *Ladouceur, R., Dubé, D., & Bujold, A. (1994). Prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among college students in the Quebec metropolitan area. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry,39, 289–293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. *Langewisch, M. W., & Frisch, G. R. (1998). Gambling behavior and pathology in relation to impulsivity, sensation seeking, and risky behavior in male college students. Journal of Gambling Studies,14(3), 245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. *Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry,144, 1184–1188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. *Lesieur, H. R., Cross, J., Frank, M., Welch, M., White, C. M., et al. (1991). Gambling and pathological gambling among university students. Addictive Behaviors,16(6), 517–527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. *Locke, G. W., Shilkret, R., Everett, J. E., & Petry, N. M. (2013). Interpersonal guilt in college student pathological gamblers. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse,39(1), 28–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. *López, C. V. (2003). El juego patológico en los universitarios de la comunidad de Madrid. Clínica y Salud,14(1), 43–65.Google Scholar
  57. *Lopez Viets, V. C. (2000). Psychosocial variables and college student gambling (Order No. 9981190, The University of New Mexico) (Vol. 87). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (304615014).
  58. *Lumley, M. A., & Roby, K. J. (1995). Alexithymia and pathological gambling. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics,63(3–4), 201–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Manter, G. (2003). The pending determination of the legality of internet gambling in the United States. Duke Law & Technology Review,2003, 16–32.Google Scholar
  60. *Mattson, R. E., MacKillop, J., Castelda, B. A., Anderson, E. J., & Donovick, P. J. (2008). The factor structure of gambling-related cognitions in an undergraduate university sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment,30(3), 229–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McComb, J. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2009). Problem gambling on college campuses. NASPA Journal,46(1), 1–29.Google Scholar
  62. *Moodie, C. (2008). Student gambling, erroneous cognitions, and awareness of treatment in Scotland. Journal of Gambling Issues,21, 30–55. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2008.21.5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. *Mubarak, A. R., & Blanksby, P. P. (2013). A study on problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Journal of Higher Education Policy & Management,35(5), 471–482. doi: 10.1080/1360080X.2013.775927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2003). NCAA national study on collegiate sports wagering and associated health-risk behaviors. Indianapolis, IN: The National Collegiate Athletic Association.Google Scholar
  65. National Council on Problem Gambling. (2006). It’s problem gambling. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from
  66. *Neighbors, C., Lostutter, T. W., Cronce, J. M., & Larimer, M. E. (2002a). Exploring college student gambling motivation. Journal of Gambling Studies,18(4), 361–370.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. *Neighbors, C., Lostutter, T. W., Larimer, M. E., & Takushi, R. Y. (2002b). Measuring gambling outcomes among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies,18(4), 339–360.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Newcomb, M. E., Heinz, A. J., & Mustanski, B. (2012). Examining risk and protective factors for alcohol use in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: A longitudinal multilevel analysis. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs,73(5), 783.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Nowak, D. E., & Aloe, A. M. (2014). The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students: A meta-analytic synthesis, 2005–2013. Journal of Gambling Studies,30(4), 819–843.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. *Oster, S. L., & Knapp, T. J. (1998). Sports betting among college students: Who bets and how often?. College Student Journal,32, 289–292.Google Scholar
  71. *Oster, S. L., & Knapp, T. J. (2001). Underage and pathological gambling by college students: Emerging problem on campus?. Psychology and Education: An Interdisciplinary Journal.Google Scholar
  72. *Oyebisi, E. O., Alao, K. A., & Popoola, B. I. (2012). Gambling behaviour of university students in South-Western Nigeria. IFE Psychologia: An International Journal,20(1), 250–260.Google Scholar
  73. *Parker, J. A., Wood, L. M., Bond, B. J., & Shaughnessy, P. (2005). Alexithymia in young adulthood: A risk factor for pathological gambling. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics,74(1), 51–55. doi: 10.1159/000082027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. *Petry, N. M., & Weinstock, J. (2007). Internet gambling is common in college students and associated with poor mental health. The American Journal on Addictions,16(5), 325–330. doi: 10.1080/10550490701525673.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. *Phillips, J. G., & Ogeil, R. P. (2011). Decisional styles and risk of problem drinking or gambling. Personality and Individual Differences,51(4), 521–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. *Platz, L. (1999). Recreation and gambling behaviors among college students (Order No. 1393924, University of Nevada, Las Vegas) (Vol. 60). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (304564575).
  77. *Powell, J., Hardoon, K., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (1999). Gambling and risk-taking behavior among university students. Substance Use and Misuse,34(8), 1167–1184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. R Core Team. (2012). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. ISBN 3-900051-07-0.
  79. *Rockey, Jr., D. L. (1998). A comparison of pathological and problem gambling between college students and college athletes (Order No. 9908532, The University of Mississippi) (Vol. 162). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (304438117).
  80. Reilly, C., & Smith, N. (2013). The evolving definition of pathological gambling in the DSM-5. National Center for Responsible Gaming, 1, 1–6.Google Scholar
  81. *Rockey, D. L., Jr., Rockey, C. M., Beason, K. R., Gilbert, J. D., & Howington, E. B. (2005). Gambling by Greek-affiliated college students: An association between affiliation and gambling. Journal of College Student Development,46(1), 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin,86(3), 638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rothstein, H. R., & Bushman, B. J. (2012). Publication bias in psychological science: Comment on Ferguson and Brannick, Psychological Methods, 17(1), 129–136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rothstein, H. R., Sutton, A. J., & Borenstein, M. (2005). Publication bias in meta-analysis: Prevention, assessment and adjustments. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shaffer, H. J., Donato, A. N., LaBrie, R. A., Kidman, R. C., & LaPlante, D. A. (2005). The epidemiology of college alcohol and gambling policies. Harm Reduction Journal,2(1), 1–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (2001). Updating and refining prevalence estimates of disordered gambling and behaviour in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health,92, 168–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., & Vander Bilt, J. (1999). Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: A research synthesis. American Journal of Public Health,89, 1369–1376.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. *Smitheringale, W. R. (2003). The prevalence of problem and pathological gambling in a Canadian university student population (Order No. MQ80040, The University of Manitoba (Canada)) (Vol. 96). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (305287714).
  89. Sterne, J. A., Gavaghan, D., & Egger, M. (2000). Publication and related bias in meta-analysis: Power of statistical tests and prevalence in the literature. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology,53(11), 1119–1129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Stinchfield, R. (2000). Gambling and correlates of gambling among Minnesota public school students. Journal of Gambling Studies,16(2–3), 153–173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Stinchfield, R. (2002). Reliability, validity, and classification accuracy of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Addictive Behaviors,27(1), 1–19. doi: 10.1016/S0306-4603(00)00158-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Stinchfield, R., Hanson, W. E., & Olson, D. H. (2006). Problem and pathological gambling among college students. In G. S. McClellan, T. W. Hardy, & J. Caswell (Eds.), Gambling on campus: New directions for student services (pp. 63–72). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  93. Stuart, E. (2011). Gambling on the rise: Is America becoming addicted? Deseret News. Retrieved from
  94. Sumitra, L. M., & Miller, S. C. (2005). Pathologic gambling disorder. Postgraduate Medicine,118(1), 31–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. *Tang, C., & Wu, A. S. (2009). Screening for college problem gambling in Chinese societies: Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (C-SOGS). International Gambling Studies,9(3), 263–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Temcheff, C. E., Derevensky, J. L., & Paskus, T. S. (2011). Pathological and disordered gambling: A comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria. International Gambling Studies,11(2), 213–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Toneatto, T. (2008). Reliability and validity of the Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment,30(1), 71–78. doi: 10.1007/s10862-007-9070-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Unlawful internet gambling enforcement act of 2006, 31 U.S.C. §§ 5361–5367.Google Scholar
  99. Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software,36(3), 1–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Volberg, R. A., & Boles, J. (1995). Gambling and problem gambling in Georgia. Report to the Georgia Department of Human Resources.Google Scholar
  101. Walker, G. J., Courneya, K. S., & Deng, J. (2007). Ethnicity, gender, and the theory of planned behavior: The case of playing the lottery. Journal of Leisure Research,38(2), 224–249.Google Scholar
  102. *Wassarman, H. S. (2001). The role of expectancies and time perspectives in gambling behavior (Order No. 3022937, Pacific Graduate School of Psychology) (Vol. 130). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (251792494).
  103. *Weatherly, J. N., Dymond, S., Samuels, L., Austin, J. L., & Terrell, H. K. (2014). Validating the gambling functional assessment—revised in a United Kingdom sample. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(2), 335–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. *Weatherly, J. N., & Miller, K. B. (2013). Exploring the factors related to endorsing gambling as an escape. International Gambling Studies,13(1), 52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. *Weatherly, J. N., Miller, J. C., Montes, K. S., & Rost, C. (2012). Assessing the reliability of the Gambling Functional Assessment: Revised. Journal of Gambling Studies,28(2), 217–223.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. *Weinstock, J., & Petry, N. M. (2008). Pathological gambling college students’ perceived social support. Journal of College Student Development,49(6), 625–632. doi: 10.1353/csd.0.0047.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. *Weinstock, J., Whelan, J. P., Meyers, A. W., & McCausland, C. (2007). The performance of two pathological gambling screens in college students. Assessment,14(4), 399–407. doi: 10.1177/1073191107305273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. *Weiss, S. M., & Loubier, S. L. (2010). Gambling habits of athletes and nonathletes classified as disordered gamblers. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied,144(6), 507–521. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2010.503248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., Tidwell, M. C. O., & Parker, J. C. (2004). Risk factors for pathological gambling. Addictive Behaviors,29(2), 323–335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. *Wickwire, E. R., Whelan, J. P., Meyers, A. W., McCausland, C., Luellen, J., & Studaway, A. (2008). Environmental correlates of gambling behavior among college students: A partial application of problem behavior theory to gambling. Journal of College Student Development,49(5), 459–475. doi: 10.1353/csd.0.0030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. *Wickwire, E. R., Whelan, J. P., West, R., Meyers, A., McCausland, C., & Leullen, J. (2007). Perceived availability, risks, and benefits of gambling among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies,23(4), 395–408. doi: 10.1007/s10899-007-9057-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Wiebe, J., Single, E., & Falkowski-Ham, A. (2001). Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Ontario. Toronto, Ontario: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Responsible Gambling Council.Google Scholar
  113. *Winters, K. C., Bengston, P., Dorr, D., & Stinchfield, R. (1998). Prevalence and risk factors of problem gambling among college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,12(2), 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. *Winters, K. C., Bengston, M., Stinchfield, R. D., & Dorr, D. (1996). 1995 college gambling survey. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Department of Human Services Gambling Program Mental Health Division.Google Scholar
  115. Woodford, M. R., Krentzman, A. R., & Gattis, M. N. (2012). Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: The effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation,3, 11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. *Worthy, S. L., Jonkman, J., & Blinn-Pike, L. (2010). Sensation-seeking, risk-taking, and problematic financial behaviors of college students. Journal of Family and Economic Issues,31(2), 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wu, A. S., & Tang, C. (2012). Problem gambling of Chinese college students: Application of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies,28(2), 315–324. doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9250-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. *Yani-de-Soriano, M., Javed, U., & Yousafzai, S. (2012). Can an industry be socially responsible if its products harm consumers? The case of online gambling. Journal of Business Ethics,110(4), 481–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. *Yorgason, D. J. (2011). Religious and spiritual predictors of gambling participation and gambling problems among college students (Order No. 3485906, The University of Memphis) (Vol. 81). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Retrieved from (908875963).
  120. Zhao, Y., Marchica, L., Derevensky, J. L., & Shaffer, H. J. (2017). The scope, focus and types of gambling policies among Canadian colleges and universities. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne,58(2), 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Fonte: Springer
Rede de Responsabilidade Social (RRS)

Related Posts

Leave A Response