Jogos a Dinheiro – Rede de Responsabilidade Social

The trials of childhood: The development, reliability, and validity of the daily life stressors scale

Título: The trials of childhood: The development, reliability, and validity of the daily life stressors scale
Autores: Christopher A. Kearney Ph.D., Ronald S. Drabman Ph.D., Julie F. Beasley M.A.
Data: 1993


The assessment of daily life stress in youngsters is receiving extensive research attention due to its pertinence to psychological and medical problems. This investigation addressed concerns from previous studies of daily life stress in children and adolescents. These included an integration with ratings of negative affectivity, exploration of developmental changes, and presentation of psychometric data. The Daily Life Stressors Scale (DLSS) is a 30-item measure designed to assess the severity of aversive feelings and everday events for youngsters. Three groups of children and adolescents were evaluated to assess the scale’s test-retest reliability and construct and concurrent validity. Developmental changes in a normative group were also examined. Results indicated the DLSS to be moderately reliable and valid for children. Also, male children reported more stress than female children, whereas female adolescents reported more stress than male adolescents. Results were discussed with respect to resilience, gender role stress, therapy implications, and usefulness for determining precursors to physiological problems.


  1. Arnold, L. E. (1990). Case illustration of stress assessment and interprofessional prevention opportunities. In L. E. Arnold (Ed.),Childhood stress (pp. 1–19). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Band, E. B., & Weisz, J. R. (1988). How to feel better when it feels bad: Children’s perspectives on coping with everyday stress.Developmental Psychology, 24 247–253.Google Scholar
  3. Banez, G. A., & Compas, B. E. (1990). Children’s and parents’ daily stressful events and psychological symptoms.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18 591–605.Google Scholar
  4. Bedell, J. R., Giordani, B., Amour, J. L., Tavormina, J., & Boll, T. (1977). Life stress and the psychological and medical adjustment of chronically ill children.Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 21 237–242.Google Scholar
  5. Bobo, J. K., Gilchrist, L. D., Elmer, J. F., Snow, W. H., & Schinke, S. P. (1986). Hassles, role strain, and peer relations in young adolescents.Journal of Early Adolescence, 6 339–352.Google Scholar
  6. Coates, T. J., & Masik, B. J. (1982). In D. C. Russo & J. W. Varni (Eds.),Behavioral pediatrics (pp. 355–374). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, L. H., Burt, C. E., & Bjorck, J. P. (1987). Life stress and adjustment: Effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents.Developmental Psychology, 23583–592.Google Scholar
  8. Colton, J. A. (1985). Childhood stress: Perceptions of children and professionals.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 7 155–173.Google Scholar
  9. Compas, B. E., Davis, G. E., & Forsythe, C. J. (1985). Characteristics of life events during adolescence.American Journal of Community Psychology, 13 677–691.Google Scholar
  10. Compas, B. E., Davis, G. E., Forsythe, C. J., & Wagner, B. M. (1987). Assessment of major and daily stressful events during adolescence: The Adolescent Perceived Events Scale.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55 534–541.Google Scholar
  11. Eisler, R. M., & Blalock, J. A. (1991). Masculine gender role stress: Implications for the assessment of men.Clinical Psychology Review, 11 45–60.Google Scholar
  12. Erickson, M. T. (1992).Behavior disorders of children and adolescents: Assessment. etiology, and intervention. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Forehand, R., Neighbors, B., & Wierson, M. (1991). The transition to adolescence: The role of gender and stress in problem behavior and competence.Journal of Child Psychology, and Psychiatry, 32 929–937.Google Scholar
  14. Garmezy, N. (1983). Stressors of childhood. In N. Garmezy & M. Rutter (Eds.),Stress. coping, and development in children (pp. 43–84). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  15. Garmezy, N. (1985). Stress-resistant children: The search for protective factors. In J. E. Stevenson (Ed.),Recent research in developmental psychopathology (pp. 213–233). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  16. Garmezy, N., & Masten, A. (1990). The adaptation of children to a stressful world: Mastery of fear. In L. E. Arnold (Ed.),Childhood stress (pp. 459–473). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Goodman, G. S., Hirschman, J. E., Hepps, D., & Rudy, L. (1991). Children’s memory for stressful events.Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 37 109–158.Google Scholar
  18. Greenberg, M. T., Siegel, J. M., & Leitch, C. J. (1983). The nature and importance of attachment relationships to parents and peers during adolescence.Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 12 373–386.Google Scholar
  19. Greene, A. L. (1988). Early adolescents’ perceptions of stress.Journal of Early Adolescence, 8 391–403.Google Scholar
  20. Hemming, H., Lavender, T., & Pill, R. (1981). Quality of life of mentally retarded adults transferred from large institutions to new small units.American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86 157–169.Google Scholar
  21. Hendren, R. L. (1990). Stress in adolescence. In L. E. Arnold (Ed.),Childhood stress (pp. 247–264). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Kalnins, I. V., Churchill, M. P., & Terry, G. E. (1980). Concurrent stresses in families with a leukemic child.Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 5 81–92.Google Scholar
  23. Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C., Schaefer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events.Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4 1–39.Google Scholar
  24. Kanner, A. D., Feldman, S. S., Weinberger, D. A., & Ford, M. E. (1987). Uplifts, hassles, and adaptational outcomes in early adolescents.Journal of Early Adolescence, 7 371–394.Google Scholar
  25. Kaplan, S. L., Grossman, P., Landa, B., Shenker, I. R., & Weinhold, C. (1986).Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 7 107–111.Google Scholar
  26. Kazdin, A. E., Rodgers, A., & Colbus, D. (1986). The hopelessness scale for children: Psychometric characteristics and concurrent validity.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54 241–245Google Scholar
  27. Kimchi, J., & Schaffner, B. (1990). Childhood protective factors ana stress risk. In L. E. Arnold (Ed.),Childhood stress (pp. 475–500). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Kovacs, M., & Beck, A. T. (1977). An empirical-clinical approach toward a definition of childhood depression. In J. G. Schulterbrandt & A. E. Raskin (Eds.),Depression in childhood: Diagnosis, treatment, and conceptual models (pp. 1–25). New York: Raven.Google Scholar
  29. Larzelere, R. E., & Mulaik, S. A. (1977). Single-sample tests for many correlations.Psychological Bulletin, 84 557–569.Google Scholar
  30. Lewis, C., Siegel, J. M., & Lewis, M. A. (1984). Feeling bad: Exploring sources of distress among pre-adolescent children.American Journal of Public Health, 14 117–122.Google Scholar
  31. Marteau, T. M., Bloch, S., & Baum, J. D. (1987). Family life and diabetic control.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28 823–833.Google Scholar
  32. Newcomb, M. D., & Harlow, L. L. (1986). Life events and substance use among adolescents: Mediating effects of perceived loss of control and meaninglessness in life.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 564–577.Google Scholar
  33. Noshpitz, J. D. (1990). Prevention and treatment of school-age and adolescent stress disorders. In L. E. Arnold (Ed.),Childhood stress (pp. 549–573). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Nowicki, S., & Strickland, B. R. (1973). A locus of control scale for children.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40 148–154.Google Scholar
  35. Pearlin, L. I., & Lieberman, M. A. (1979). Social sources of emotional distress.Research in Community and Mental Health, 1 217–248.Google Scholar
  36. Perlmutter, J., & Myers, J. L. (1973). A comparison of two procedures for testing multiple contrasts.Psychological Bulletin, 79 181–184.Google Scholar
  37. Piers, E. V. (1984).Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale: Revised manual 1984. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  38. Purcell, K., Brady, K., Chai, H., Muser, J., Molk, L., Gordon, N., & Means, J. (1969). The effect on asthma in children of experimental separation from the family.Psychosomatic Medicine, 31 144–164.Google Scholar
  39. Sears, S. J., & Milburn, J. (1990). School-age stress. In L. E. Arnold (Ed.),Childhood stress(pp. 223–246). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  40. Spielberger, C. D. (1973).Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  41. Spirito, A., Stark, L. J., Grace, N., & Stamoulis, D. (1991). Common problems and coping strategies reported in childhood and early adolescence.Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20 531–544.Google Scholar
  42. Tolor, A., & Murphy, V. M. (1985). Stress and depression in high school students.Psychological Reports, 57 535–541.Google Scholar
  43. Tuma, J. M. (1989). Mental health services for children: The state of the art.American Psychologist, 44 188–199.Google Scholar
  44. Varni, J. W. (1983).Clinical behavioral pediatrics. Elmsford Park, NY: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  45. Voller, R. D., & Strong, W. B. (1981). Pediatric aspects of atherosclerosis.American Heart Journal, 101 815–836.Google Scholar
  46. Waldron, I. (1976). Why do women live longer than men?Journal of Human Stress, 2 1–13.Google Scholar
  47. Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states.Psychological Bulletin, 96 455–490.Google Scholar
  48. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982).Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  49. Williams, C. L., & Uchiyama, C. (1989). Assessment of life events during adolescence: The use of self-report inventories.Adolescence, 24 95–118.Google Scholar
  50. Wolfe, V. V., Finch, Jr., A. J., Saylor, C. F., Blount, R. L., Pallmeyer, T. P., & Carek, D. J. (1987). Negative affectivity in children: A multitrait-multimethod investigation.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55 245–250.Google Scholar
  51. Yamamoto, K., & Felsenthal, H. M. (1982). Stressful experiences of children: Professional judgments.Psychological Reports, 50 1087–1093.Google Scholar
  52. Youngs, Jr., G. A., Rathge, R., Mullis, R., & Mullis, A. (1990). Adolescent stress and self-esteem.Adolescence, 25 333–341.Google Scholar


Fonte: Springer
Rede de Responsabilidade Social

Related Posts

Leave A Response